Upon request, usually an alternative serviceman seeks a place of work near the house.
Place of service determined by authorities, but at the same time military personnel are allowed to go home for a weekend.
The declarative nature of the right to ACS.
Applications for the performance of non-military service must be processed without delay. Units or regional branches of the armed forces must approve all applications that meet the requirement.
The procedure for the passage of an alternative civil service is regulated by a legislative act: Siviilipalveluslaki 28.12.2007 / 1446 (Law on Civil Service.)
This law entered into force on January 1, 2008.
In 1931 the law of Pekurinen was adopted, which created in Finland the institute of alternative civilian service and conscientious objection ceased to be a crime.
In 1999, the right to exemption from participation in military defense of the country on convictions was fixed in the main document of the country - the Constitution of Finland (§ 127).
In Finland there is universal conscription.
Compulsory military service has stable support among the inhabitants of Finland. According the results of the survey, ordered by the weekly newspaper Suomen Kuvalehti from the research company Taloustutkimus. Majority, about 80 percent, want to keep the conscription in any form.
Chapter 12 § 127 of the Constitution states: «Every Finnish citizen is obligated to participate or assist in national defence, as provided by an Act».
Formally, the number of delays is not provided by law. In fact, the citizen himself can choose when he plans to undergo military service - his only duty is to enter the military service for up to 30 years.
In Finland, the majority of those who have refused military service find the work themselves within the deadline.
From 165 to 347 days, depending on the rank.
In Finland, there is no right to a full refusal, except for Jehovah's Witnesses and residents of the demilitarized Åland Islands (an enclave with a predominantly Swedish population).
In practice, if a citizen refuses from an alternative service, he pays a penalty for committing a criminal offense, but this crime is not included in a single database of criminal penalties.
In Finland, a military liable citizen who ascertains serious political or religious beliefs based on views that impede the performance of military service, set out in the Law on Military Service (1438/2007), is released from it and assigned to perform non-military service.
There is a conscription.
The conscript age is from 18 to 30 years. The service term is different - it can be 180 days, 270 and 362 days.
Most young men serve 6 months. 9 months serve those whose military specialties require longer training. For example, military orderlies or military police.
12 months serve those conscripts who are trained for junior command staff (junior sergeants). Also 12 months serve drivers who are receive after service a driver's license of professional categories.
A citizen selects a place for an alternative service from the list approved by the Ministry of Employment and sends out a CV. If there are no restrictions on the passage of service in this place, then the person is sent there.
During the alternative service, cash benefits are paid in the same amount as during military service.
For the first four weeks, alternative workers undergo intensive training at the Center for Non-Military Service. They master the basics of first aid and fire safety, study how to search and rescue people who disappeared in the forest, as well as work with pollution and water purification from oil spills. Theoretical studies include the history of conscientious objection to military service in Finland, lectures on "Politics and civic activism", which study the policies of developed countries, as well as the course "Prevention of violence" - in these sessions they tell what is based on violence and how each citizen can resist it. Up to 16 academic hours are allocated for the study of human rights, as well as humanitarian law in force during the period of military operations.
Typical places of work are hospitals, libraries, social and medical institutions, schools and colleges. Places of service in Finland can be not only in state institutions, but also in non-profit organizations (NGOs), among which are the Association of Youth Circuses, the Association of War Veterans, the Federation of Swimming Sports, the Orthodox Church, the Cinematographic Foundation and rescue organizations.
Exceptions are commercial organizations and political parties.
In the case of conscription, the application for non-military service should be provided to the conscription commission, in other cases to the regional branch of the Center for Military Service or to the regional branch of the armed forces. The application must be submitted in the form approved by the Ministry of Labor and Economics. Any confirmation of serious political or religious convictions that are based on views that discourages the performance of military service must be attached to the application. The application must be signed.
Applications for the performance of non-military service must be processed without delay. Units or regional branches of the armed forces must approve all applications that meet the requirements. Units and regional branches of the armed forces must immediately notify the Center for Military Service that the application for non-military service has been approved. A central government or municipal authority can act as a Center for Non-Military Service. The duties of a Center for Non-Military Service include:
1) ordering persons liable for non-military service to enter service;
2) training persons liable for non-military service;
3) supervision of persons liable for non-military service;
4) issuing a non-military service certificate pursuant to section 8 of the Passport Act (671/2006) to those liable for non-military service before the commencement of non-military service;
5) implementation of the compensation of the accommodation costs of persons liable for non-military service; and
6) other practical implementation of non-military service.
In Finland, the law on military service (1438/2007) provides that «a person liable for military service who claims that deep moral convictions do not allow him to perform military service with weapons, and apply for the passage of service without weapons, may be exempted from serving with arms and is aimed at passing service without weapons».
In fact, the transfer from military service to civil service takes place in 1 day.
The period of non-military service is 347 days.